ISSN: 1870-1442

:: Number 47 (January - April 2024)

Editorial Policy

Open Access Policy

Ola Financiera provides free and immediate access to its content and makes research available to the general public free of charge to support a greater exchange of global knowledge through its declaration of

Open Access

Open Access (OA) is a way to share information, usually scientific research results, without any cost or restriction for the user. It is an international movement in which the author or owner of the rights of the work authorizes free access to use, distribute, copy and transmit the work publicly in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to due attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make a small number of hard copies for personal use (Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing). This movement is based on the Declarations of Budapest (2002), Bethesda (2003) and Berlin (2003).

Open Access at UNAM

In the university sphere, various initiatives have been implemented since the decade of the nineties. In 2006 UNAM adhered to the Berlin Declaration. Starting in 2011, Toda la UNAM en línea (All UNAM online) program was launched, which “promotes Open Access and free, online consultation of digital content, the product of academic, scientific research and cultural activities developed at the UNAM, published by the academic entities and university dependencies, as well as the resources of which the UNAM is the depository and has the patrimonial rights or with the express authorization of the authors” (Gaceta UNAM, August 30, 2014).

Ola Financiera adheres to the Agreement establishing the General Guidelines for the Open Access Policy of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (published in Gaceta UNAM, September 10, 2015).

Ola Financiera does not charge or will charge any fees to its readers for the concept of subscription or authors for sending, processing or publishing their texts.














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Made in Mexico, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), all rights reserved 2004-2024.

OLA FINANCIERA, Vol. 17 No. 47,    Janaury - April 2024, is a quarterly publication, with international arbitration, edited by Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México by Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, Ciudad Universitaria, Circuito Mario de la Cueva s/n, Ciudad de la Investigación en Humanidades, Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, México, D.F. Tel.+52 (55) 5623-0131, and Faculty of Economics, Ciudad Universitaria, Circuito Interior s/n, Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, México, D.F., www.olafinanciera.unam.mx, ola.financiera.unam@gmail.com Editor in charge: Dr. Wesley C. Marshall. Reservation of Rights to Exclusive Use: 04-2013-050912324700-203, ISSN electronic: 1870-1442. Responsible for the last update of this issue, Ing. Jesús Garrido López and Dr. Jesús Sosa Arista, Circuito Mario de la Cueva s/n, Ciudad de la Investigación en Humanidades, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, México D.F. date of last modification, janaury 08, 2024.

The opinions expressed by the authors do not necessarily reflect the position of the editor of the publication.

Permission to reproduce all or part of the published texts is granted provided the source is cited in full including the web address. Otherwise, it requires prior written permission from the institution.